Roethlisberger was the first alternate at quarterback for the AFC and was offered the spot when Patriots quarterback Tom Brady pulled out because of injuries.
Roethlisberger declined because of the shoulder injury, which happened in the team's final game against the Miami Dolphins. Roethlisberger injured the shoulder when going for a loose ball, but remained in the game.
Roethlisberger had the best season statistically in 2009, throwing for a team-record 4,328 yards.
The Steelers will have two players in the Pro Bowl, linebacker James Harrison and nose tackle Casey Hampton.
Houston Texans quarterback Matt Schaub was added to the roster after Roethlisberger declined. The Pro Bowl will be played on January 31 in Miami, a week prior to the Super Bowl instead of the week after this year.